I. What is a Polemic?
A polemic is a strong attack or争论反对某事。大部分时间都在一个有争议的主题上;像关于民事或人权，哲学和道德，政治，宗教等等的重要问题。例如，一个强烈反对死刑的人可能会对它进行争议，声称这种做法是错误的，并确定原因。
The word polemic stems from the Greek termPOLEMIKOS.，这意味着“战争”。这使得很容易记住其当前的意义和目的，就像原始术语的定义一样，争论基本上是一个修辞alwar against an issue.
II. Example of a Polemic
Broccoli is a disgusting vegetable whose existence is the bane of all children’s lives. Those who believe it is a delicious and healthy food are wrong. It is a foul, appalling thing that should be banned from being sold or grown under any circumstances. Only when we rid the world of broccoli will we truly remove the threat of repulsive dinners.
This brief polemic clearly delivers a clear opinion about broccoli and attacks the idea that it is a likable food.
Polemics are important because they advocate for a cause and express strong opinions clearly and without ambiguity. We need polemics for arguing against things we see as major problems and for trying to bring about changes in the things we believe in. Without them, important竞争点ws不会用这种力量和激情表达。
IV. Examples of Polemics in Literature
The Communist Manifestois one of the most well-known political polemics in literature, and one you’ve surely heard of. It was written by 19th century philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who identified what they saw as the major problems of capitalism and the class struggles it caused. Here are a few of the attacks the laid on the system:
Masses of laborers, crowded into the factory, are organized like soldiers…Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overlooker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself.
马克思和恩格斯是针对资本主义的社会，因为他们认为这些社会抑制了个人并使他们成为奴隶。他们认为，真正的政治权力只是贫穷的贫困力量。虽然哲学家确实支持共产主义，The Communist Manifestois a polemic because it is primarily an攻击资本主义, rather than a work justifying communism.
Jonathan Swift的“一个适度的提案”是社会派生的众所周知的例子。这是一个讽刺的散文that was written as an attack against the treatment of the Irish by the British government in the 18th century, and a commentary on their poor solutions to serious societal problems. He makes ludicrous suggestions about how to deal with things like poverty, for example, that the poor should sell their children as food:
A young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee, or a ragout…A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter.
While it may seem like he is in support of treating the Irish poorly, it’s actually an argument against such treatment. Swift uses讽刺and well-designed修辞to make readers hate the speaker of the “proposal” and in turn become concerned for the Irish. The ridiculous things he suggests are reflective of the poor choices and care that the government gives to its citizens, and so by making a mockery of the system, he is attacking those who are in charge.
在The Hunger Games: Mockingjay—Part 1，Katniss Everdeen在她见证了一个激烈的争论tragedywhere the victims were innocent citizens. As you will see, her message is loud and clear:
在this clip fromConan，喜剧演员比尔博尔尔解释了为什么他讨厌超级碗派对和半场秀：
When questioned about his dislike, Bill answers with a polemic against his party guests and the music performance during the halftime show.
在all, polemics are strong修辞al devicesthat help make big statements. When it comes to controversial issues, polemics provide a powerful way of expressing opinions and arguing against issues that deserve attention.